Tumors of the pituitary are mainly benign adenomas type. Proper management of these tumors leads to complete healing of the disease.
The pituitary gland – a tiny organ in the center of the skull base, located over the optic nerve to the brain.
Depending on the cells from which a tumor formed, it can be papillary, tape, etc.
Pituitary adenoma is a limited form, but it can create pressure. Adenoma is fibro-muscular core. Tumor can secrete or do not secrete hormones. To find out whether the tumor releases hormones, can be applied immunohistochemistry test (using antibodies to different hormones) or it can be defined by observation through an electron microscope to identify the position of the pellets.
There is an invasive type of adenomas (micro-invasive adenoma), which is considered benign, but its boundaries are unclear, and it can spread, especially in the front part of the pituitary gland.
Benign craniopharyngioma. This is a tumor of the pituitary pocket (Rhatke’s pouch). Tumor size may be about 5 cm (for comparison, the size of the pituitary about 1 cm), so that it puts pressure on the pituitary. This tumor grows slowly, spreading to nearby organs and bones (because it is difficult to remove surgically).
Prolactinoma is a type of benign pituitary adenoma. This tumor is formed from cells sekritiruyuschih prolactin (a hormone of lactation), and is the most common tumor in young women.
The first sign of tumors are headaches and blurred vision. Symptoms occur directly from nature cancer and may also include increased secretion of sebum cycle disorders in women and impotence in men, general weakness, increased and deformation of the limbs, and changes in facial features.
Histologically, the tumor is characterized by the presence of cells of squamous epithelium. This tumor is often accompanied by diabetes insipidus or by surgery to remove the tumor, which causes damage to the secretion of vasopressin, or as a result of the tumor itself proizvodtva tumor substance which is an antagonist of vasopressin.
Malignant tumors of the pituitary gland are rare.
Metastatic tumors of the pituitary gland can become very distant organs such as the kidneys, ovaries and other organs. Metastases can spread through the lymph and blood vessels.
Diagnosis of pituitary tumors.
On the basis of diagnostic imaging tests, such as CT or MRI, the physician determines the tumor located in the cavity of the skull base. Another important step in the diagnostic process is to assess the function of the endocrine pituitary hormones.
Treatment combines the different measures depending on the situation:
Surgery to remove the tumor is desirable in cases where there is a real danger or in cases of bleeding in the tumor, resulting in a sharp and sudden deterioration.
The procedure is performed through a small incision in the nasal cavity, without the need for abdominal surgery and autopsy of the skull. This method makes it possible to perform tumor resection without significant risk, and the patient returns home after a few days.
For the treatment may also be applied specialized drugs that can balance the increased secretion of hormones from the tumor cells. Drugs effective in most cases.
Focal radiation therapy used for contraindications to surgery or in the case of patients older than 60 years. This treatment is less traumatic than surgery, but not always appropriate due to the size (in the case of large tumors), or in the case of younger patients, in whom the risk of renewed tumor is very high.
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