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Endocrinology

 

 

Treatment of adrenal glands dysfunction, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, goiter, Graves’ disease, thyroiditis, thyroid cancer, metabolic disease, pituitary gland (hypopituitarism), Turner syndrome, acquired disorders, ovarian failure (menopause), impaired testicular function, impaired puberty.

 


 

Endocrinology is a unit that studies diseases of the endocrine (excretory) system and the products of its activity – hormones. Along with this, endocrinology studies the impact of endocrine system on cells growth and differentiation (including histogenesis – tissue formation, and organogenesis – forming organs), as well as psychological or behavioral reactions, caused by hormones – metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sleep, digestion, respiration, excretion, mood, stress, lactation, movement, reproduction, and sensory perception.

 

Endocrine system consists of several different parts of the gland body that secrete hormones into the blood directly. Hormones have various functions and modes of action. Thus, one hormone can have several effects on different target organs and, conversely, a target organ may depend on more than one hormone.

 

Number secrete hormones in a healthy body balanced. If it is increasing or decreasing at a significant level, the body undergoes critical changes that may affect the metabolism of the whole organism and the work of the bodies and, therefore, require immediate diagnosis and treatment.

 

We select the narrow section of each physician for treatment a certain type of disease that makes the most effective treatment and helps improve the quality of life of our patients.

 

Endocrine diseases

Adrenal glands: adrenal insufficiency, Addison’s disease, mineralocorticoid deficiency, diabetes, adrenal hormone excess, Conn’s syndrome, Cushing’s syndrome, glucocorticoid aldosteronism (GRA), pheochromocytoma, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (adrenogenital syndrome), adrenocortical carcinoma

 

Impaired glucose homeostasis: diabetes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, diabetes young, hypoglycemia, idiopathic hypoglycemia, insulinoma, glucagonoma.

 

Thyroid: goiter, hyperthyroidism, Graves’ disease – Graves, toxic multinodular goiter, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, thyroid cancer, thyroid hormone resistance.

 

Violations of calcium homeostasis and metabolic bone disease: disruption of the parathyroid glands, primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary hyperparathyroidism, tertiary hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, Pseudohypoparathyroidism, osteoporosis, osteitis deformans (Paget’s disease), rickets and osteomalacia.

 

Pituitary gland: the posterior pituitary (diabetes insipidus), pituitary gland (hypopituitarism or panhypopituitarism), pituitary tumors, pituitary adenoma, prolactinoma (or hyperprolactinemia), acromegaly, gigantism, Cushing’s disease.

 

Genital secretions: violations of sexual development or intersex disorders, hermaphroditism, gonadal dysgenesis, androgen insensitivity syndrome, hypogonadism (gonadotropin deficiency), inherited (genetic and chromosomal) disorders syndrome Kalman, Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, acquired disorders, ovarian failure (also known as premature menopause), impaired testicular function, impaired puberty, delayed puberty, precocious puberty, menstrual disorder and infertility, amenorrhea, polycystic ovary syndrome, tumors of the endocrine glands.

 

 

 

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Addison’s disease

Addison’s disease is an autoimmune disease, expressed as a failure by the adrenal glands to release the hormone cortisol.

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Adrenal insufficiency

Adrenal insufficiency (hypoadrenalism) – a disease that occurs as a result of adrenal insufficiency. This is an incomplete form of Addison’s disease, in which the celebrated nedostotochnoe (almost no) selection of the steroid hormone cortisol.

The disease occurs due to the inability of the adrenal glands to produce enough cortisol. In this case, the level of cortisol can also be normal, but the human body does not respond to stress and can not provide a cortisol in the quantities required in emergency situations. Although in terms of the analysis of the blood of adrenal insufficiency is not a serious medical condition, as Addison’s disease (a chronic lack of cortisol), people may suffer from severe symptoms that impede daily functioning of the body.

Iron deficiency can be attributed to various causes. Primary adrenal insufficiency – a lack of response to ACTH hormone, secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate the release of cortisol. Secondary failure – this is a problem in the pituitary gland, which secretes the hormone is not enough to stimulate the secretion of ACTH and cortisol. This can lead to atrophy of the gland in the absence of the need for it. Signs of primary failure can be seen in changes in the indices of a blood test – the level of electrolytes (potassiumsodium). Secondary adrenal insufficiency difficult to diagnose. Addison’s disease is a primary failure, as well as the most severe form. In this case, the adrenal glands atrophy, being attacked by antibodies the body’s own (an autoimmune disease).

We select the narrow section expert for treatment of each type of the disease, which makes treatment more efficient. Our experienced specialist makes an accurate diagnosis on the basis of which will be matched by appropriate treatment.

Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency: weakness, dizziness, fatigue, weight loss, depression, muscle and joint pain, low blood pressure.

Diagnosis
Diagnosis of primary and secondary insufficiency (Addison’s disease) is performed by measuring the adrenal cortisol in the blood, which is abnormally low. This result is accompanied by a dynamic study of ACTH.

ACTH stimulation test. Administered to the patient hormone ACTH, which causes irritation of the adrenal gland, which increases the level of cortisol in the blood. According to the level of cortisol may diagnose or rule out thyroid insufficiency.
DHEA-S test. Hormone DHEA, secreted by the adrenal glands, often implies iron deficiency. It was established that in all cases where a sub-activity, hormone levels are low. Some patients may have a completely normal test result with ACTH, although they suffer from the lack of activity of the adrenal glands and low values ​​of DHEA.
Test reduction of the pupil. Test in which the patient’s eye is sold direct light. Under normal reaction pupil narrows. With a lack of cortisol when you turn off the light the pupil dilates and contracts as long as there is still extended. In a healthy person is a pupil constriction.
Bergland’s Test . Measurement of blood pressure after a patient rises sharply after prolonged sitting. Image less than 10 or so, systolic pressure, and dizziness, indicating a low level of cortisol.

Management
As with any hormonal deficiency, treatment is carried out by filling the missing hormone, cortisol. The patient may be prescribed drugs containing natural hormone cortisol and synthetic hormones.
With the correct diagnosis of an experienced professional will help restore the proper level of cortisol in the body.

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Thyroid treatment

Thyroid gland is one of the glands of humans endocrine system, it has form of a butterfly and located in front of the neck. Thyroid has an important role in the regulation of numerous metabolic processes in the body. Various types of thyroid disease affect neither its structure and function.

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Diabetes mellitus (DM)

Diabetes mellitus (DM ), or simply mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high levels of blood sugar. Elevated blood sugar causes symptoms such as frequent urination, increased thirst and increased hunger. Without proper treatment diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma. Serious long-term complications can cause cardiovascular disease, renal failure, and damage to the organs of sight.

Diabetes occurs when the pancreas either does not produce enough of the hormone insulin (which regulates the level of sugar in blood) or cells do not respond properly to the insulin that is produced.

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