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Hyperthyroidism

 

 

Hyperthyroidism is the excessive production of thyroid hormone. This is a less common condition than hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can be caused by other health problems that may complicate diagnosis.

 

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism

Weight loss, heart palpitations (tachycardia) – more than 100 beats per minute, irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia ) or heart palpitations, anxiety and irritability tremor – usually trembling hands and fingers, sweating, nervousness, changes in the menstrual cycle, increased appetite, increased sensitivity to heat, changes in bowel habits, an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter), which may appear as a swelling at the base of the neck, fatigue, sleeping difficulties, thinning of the skin, muscle weakness, brittle hair.

 

Sometimes in rare cases may be Graves’ ophthalmopathy, which affects eyes, especially in smokers. In this case, the eyeballs protrude beyond the normal protective orbit due to swelling of tissues and muscles of the rear side of the eye. This leads to dryness of the front surface of eyes, redness and swelling, tearing or discomfort in one or both eyes, light sensitivity, blurred or double vision, inflammation, or restriction of eye movements.

 

 

Causes of hyperthyroidism can be toxic adenoma, Plummer’s disease (toxic multinodular goiter) and thyroiditis.

 

The thyroid gland has a butterfly shape, and is located at the base of the neck just below the Adam’s apple (Adam’s apple). Thyroid gland has a huge impact on health. Every aspect of metabolism is regulated by thyroid hormone.

 

Your thyroid gland produces two main hormones, thyroxine (T -4) and triiodothyronine (T-3) , affecting every cell in your body. These hormones set the rate at which your body uses fats and carbohydrates , help control your body temperature, influence your heart rate and help regulate protein production . Your thyroid gland also produces calcitonin, a hormone that helps regulate the amount of calcium in the blood.

 

It works as follows:

The rate at which the T- 4 and T -3 are released by the pituitary is controlled, and your hypothalamus near the base of the brain, which acts as a thermostat for the entire system.

The hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland to produce thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Pituitary TSH then releases – programming depends on the content of T-4 and T-3 in the blood. If the T- 4 and T-3 in the blood is not enough, the TSH level will rise; if too much, the TSH level will decrease.

 

 

Causes the thyroxine ( T-4 ) redundancy

Graves’ disease. Graves’ disease, an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies produced by the immune system , stimulates the thyroid gland to manufacture too much kolichestvao T-4 , which is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism . Typically , the immune system uses antibodies to protect against viruses , bacteria and other foreign substances that invade the body. Graves’ disease antibodies mistakenly attack the thyroid gland , and sometimes attack the back side of the eye tissue ( Graves’ ophthalmopathy ) and the skin of the lower leg above the shins ( Graves’ dermopathy ) . There is no clear scientific certainty is what causes Graves’ disease, although several factors – including genetic predisposition – will probably take part in this.

 

Hyperfunction of thyroid nodules (toxic adenoma, toxic multinodular goiter, Plummer’s disease). This form of hyperthyroidism occurs when one or more thyroid adenomas produce too many T-4. Gland adenoma is part which is formed of cells forming noncancerous (benign) lumps that may cause enlargement of the thyroid gland. Not all adenomas produce T-4 in excess.

 

Thyroiditis. Sometimes the thyroid gland can become inflamed for unknown reasons. Inflammation can cause oozing excess thyroid hormone in the blood. One of the rare types of thyroiditis, known as subacute thyroiditis, causes pain in the thyroid gland. Other types painless. Sometimes thyroiditis can occur after pregnancy (postpartum thyroiditis).

 

 

Risk factors

Hyperthyroidism, especially Grave’s disease, usually more frequent in women than in men.

 

Hyperthyroidism can lead to several complications :

 

Heart problems. Some of the most serious complications of hyperthyroidism affect the heart, which occur in the form of palpitations, irregular heart rhythm (atrial fibrillation) and congestive heart failure – a condition in which your heart can not circulate enough blood to meet the body’s needs. These complications are usually reversible with appropriate treatment.

 

Brittle bones. Uncontrolled hyperthyroidism can also lead to weakening of bone fragility (osteoporosis). Bone strength depends, inter alia, on the amount of content of calcium and other minerals. Too much thyroid hormone affects your body’s ability to deduce the calcium from the bones.

 

Eye problems. People with Graves’ ophthalmopathy have eye problems, including bulging, red or swollen eyes, high sensitivity to light, and blurred or double vision. Hyperthyroidism uncontrolled progression can lead to vision loss.

 

Skin redness and swelling. In rare instances, in patients with Graves ‘disease develop Graves’ dermopathy, which affects the skin, causing redness and swelling, often in the legs and feet.

 

Thyrotoxic crisis. Hyperthyroidism also cam cause thyrotoxic crisis – a sudden burst of symptoms, fever, rapid pulse, possible even delirium. In this case, you should immediately get medical help.

 

 

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Hyperthyroidism Diagnosis and Treatment

Hyperthyroidism Diagnosis includes:

History and physical examination. During the examination doctor determines the presence of a slight fingers tremor, its duration, overactive reflexes, eye changes, skin temperature and humidity, swallowing reflex.

Blood tests. Measure levels of thyroxine and TSH. High levels of thyroxine and low or non-existent performance of TSH indicate an overactive thyroid. These tests are especially needed for older people who have not seen the classic symptoms of hyperthyroidism.

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