Urology occupies treatment of many organs and physiological systems and is divided into several narrow fields. Many Israeli doctors have a narrow specialization in one of these fields, what makes treatment more effective.
Endourology. Direction, which is engaged in closed manipulation of the urinary tract . These include all urological minimally invasive surgical procedures. In contrast to open surgery they are performed by small chambers and tools. Transurethral surgery is the cornerstone of endourology. Most urinary tract infections can be achieved through the urethra, enabling prostate surgery, urothelium tumors, as well as disposal operations stones. Recently in this area also includes laparoscopy and robotics.
Laparoscopy – rapidly developing field of urology which replaced some open surgical procedures. Da Vinci is a robot assistant in surgery of the prostate, kidney and ureter.
Urologic oncology covers surgical treatment of malignant diseases of the genitourinary system, such as cancer of the prostate, adrenal glands, bladder, kidneys, ureters, testicles and penis. Treatment of cancer of the genitourinary system is an expertise of urologist and oncologist depending on the method of treatment (surgical or with medications). Most urologic oncologists use minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopy or endourology as well as robotic surgery) for treatment of urological cancers amenable to surgical treatment.
Neuro-urology treats nervous system involved in the management of genitourinary system as well as conditions that cause abnormal urination. Neurological diseases and disorders such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease and spinal cord injury, can disrupt the function of the lower urinary tract and lead to states such as urinary incontinence, detrusor overactivity, urinary retention and the detrusor sphincter dyssynergia. Urodynamic studies play an important diagnostic role in neuro-urology. Therapy for nervous system includes intermittent self-catheterization clean bladder, anticholinergic drugs, injections of botulinum toxin into the bladder wall and are less frequently used treatments like sacral neuromodulation. Urological disorders can also cause abnormal sensory nervous system, resulting painful or frequent urination (eg pain bladder syndrome, also known as interstitial cystitis).
Pediatric urology. This area examines the urological disorders in children. Such disorders include cryptorchidism (undescended testes), congenital abnormalities of the genitourinary system, enuresis, underdeveloped genitalia (due to delayed growth or delayed puberty, often associated with endocrinological problem), and vesicoureteral reflux.
Andrology focuses on the male reproductive system. It mainly relates to male infertility, erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disorders. In terms of male sexuality is largely controlled by hormones, andrology combined with endocrinology. Surgery in this field includes procedures fertilization (IVF), vasectomy, and implantation of penile prosthesis.
Reconstructive urology. This is a highly specialized area of urology, which restores the structure and function of the urogenital system. Condition after prostate surgery, complete or partial removal of the uterus, trauma (accident, gunshot wounds, straddle injuries, etc. ), disease, barriers (eg , urethral stricture), and sometimes delivery may require later reconstructive surgery. Bladder, ureters (the tubes that lead from the kidneys to the bladder) and genitals may also need reconstructive urology.
Female urology. This line of urology, which deals with the treatment of overactive bladder, pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence. Many uro-gynecologists also practice neurology and reconstructive urology.