Prostate cancer symptoms and risk factors
The causes of prostate cancer are not known exactly, but there are several factors that influence the risk of getting prostate cancer.
Risk Factors of Prostate Cancer
Age increases the risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer. About 75% of these events are diagnosed in men aged 65 years or older.
Heredity and faulty genes
Most often, prostate cancer is not caused by genetics, but sometimes a risk factor is in the family history. If men aged 60 and older are suffering from prostate cancer and if he has a large family, it increases the likelihood of hereditary prostate cancer.
About 5-15% of the risk of getting prostate cancer can also be associated with acquired defective genes or genetic mutations.
Mutations in the BRCA1 gene, and especially in the BRCA2 gene, may cause several types of prostate cancer, which also increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer. The use of molecular onco-tests allows to select the proper treatment and predict the disease prognosis.
Several studies are suggesting a connection between nutrition and the risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer, but it is unclear. In any case, healthy balanced diet will help reduce the risk of getting various types of cancer and other diseases. Diet should include food high in fiber and low sugar meals and exclude fat and processed foods.
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
In the early stages, prostate cancer does not cause symptoms and other external signs. Symptoms appear as the tumor begins to grow and to press on the urethra. As it grows slowly, the signs of prostate cancer can occur years after the onset of the tumor itself. In many cases, men aged 50 and over suffer from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is caused by non-cancerous enlargement.
The symptoms in cases of a benign enlargement and malignant growth of the prostate gland are the same:
- Weak or interrupted urination.
- Increased urination frequency, especially at night.
- Pain during urination.
- Blood in urine or during sexual intercourse (rarely).
- Pain in bone. It occurs if the cancer has metastasized to the bone. Sometimes the first symptoms can include pain in the back, hips, or pelvis.
If you suffer from any of these symptoms, it is important to contact immediately an experienced urologist. However, keep in mind that in most cases enlarged prostate does not mean cancer.
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