Thyroid cancer is a tumor that forms due to indiscriminate growth of various types of thyroid cells. The disease usually progresses slowly and with no apparent symptoms.
Due to modern Israeli technologies this type of cancer is considered to be one of successfully treated diseases. If you or any of your relatives were diagnosed with this disease, please contact us. We accept applications for the treatment of patients with all stages of the disease, any kind of tumor location, and malignancies in the body.
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There are four main types of disease:
Thyroid cancer Diagnostics
- Blood test (thyroid hormones T3, T4, TSH, calcitonin)
- Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland and lymph nodes
- Biopsy. Maybe done in two ways (determined individually by the physician)
- FNA – fine needle is inserted into the neck and thyroid gland of a small sample of tissue is removed . The entire procedure is performed under ultrasound kotnrolem .
- Surgical biopsy – under local or general anesthesia, a small incision in the neck and removed a small image of the thyroid tissue . This iispolzuetsya in cases of inability to use the needle.
- Radioisotope scanning. Painless and safe thyroid scan using radioactive liquid that is injected into a vein in your hand and spread to internal organs. Cancer cells actively absorb the liquid, so experts define tumor location and extent of the process.
The radioactivity level after scanning is very low due to the rapid disintegration of a substance introduced into the body.
- CT (computed tomography with contrast medium for clear pictures )
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan , which, thanks to a combination of magnetic and radio waves to create a detailed cross-section images of the body and allows experts as clearly as possible to see the details .
- PET-CT ( positron emission tomography ) scan is usually for metastatic disease or relapse of the disease.
Diagnosis usually lasts 4-5 days, after which the patient receives a conclusion from the doctor about the diagnosis.
Thyroid cancer treatment
It is surgical removal of all thyroid, including the cervix. This method is used for removal of undetermined cells in other parts of the thyroid gland.
Partial or Hemi – thyroidectomy
It includes partial removal of altered thyroid gland.
With any of these types of surgery, the surgeon can remove the nearby lymph nodes. This procedure is called a neck dissection (Neck Dissection)
In rare cases, the surgeon has also to remove other tissues around the thyroid gland affected by cancer cells.
Patient hospitalization and recovery
Hospitalization up to 3 days, during which the body by intravenous drip fed liquid until a person can not eat or drink.
Most patients are able to eat after 12-24 hours, then removed dropper. Sutures are removed and resolve within a few days.
Some patients experience pain and difficulty in swallowing. In this case, as a rule, dietician appoints sparing diet. To avoid complications after surgery, rehabilitation is needed and the personal efforts of the patient are paramount. Therefore, we always encourage our patients to listen recommendations speech therapist and dietician.
After surgery, the neck remains small scar which becomes imperceptible over time. In such cases, doctor prescribes certain creams.
After thyroid surgery need to take substitutes thyroid hormone (thyroxine). This is part of a treatment plan for most people with thyroid cancer, because cancer after removal, the body will no longer produce the hormones that support metabolism.
Without taking the hormone thyroxine, develop symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as weight gain, constipation, brittle and dry hair and skin, lethargy and fatigue. Taking hormone T4 ( thyroxine) delays in production of pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) . High levels of TSH may cause the growth of cancer cells elsewhere in the body.
In the period between the operation and further treatment requires constant monitoring of hormone levels in the blood, the body needs to produce thyroxine dose . Gradually, the medication enters the routine.
Radioactive iodine treatment
Some patients should be treated with radioactive iodine six weeks after surgery. This type of internal radiation therapy for treatment.
Radioactive iodine destroys a small amount of normal thyroid tissue and any cancer cells left after surgery. This method is also called radio-iodine ablation.
To radioactive iodine treatment was successful, a high level of TSH in the body.
This means that prior to treatment, it is necessary to stop taking thyroid hormones, within 2-4 weeks.
Radioactive iodine therapy is contraindicated in pregnant or lactating women.
A diet high in iodine makes radioactive iodine treatment less effective. Two weeks before the start of treatment is necessary to eat foods that contain low or no iodine . Food should not include seafood, iodized table salt, some dairy products, and foods with certain dyes.
Radioactive iodine treatment makes a person radioactive – about a week. Therefore, in this period, the patient is isolated clinically.
After treatment doctors recommend not to plan a child for one year.
Other side effects in the treatment of radioactive iodine may be thirst, fatigue, nausea, shortness of breath, inability to concentrate and think logically, change in taste and smell within 24 hours after the trial. All this should be discussed with your doctor.
In order to accelerate the exit I131 (a radioactive substance) from an organism patient should drink in large quantities.
Radiotherapy – the influence on the body a high energy X-rays or electron beams to kill cancer cells.
Most often, this method is used for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancers. Sometimes it is administered prior to surgery instead of surgery or metastatic process.
Treatment time from 5 days to few easy weeks.
Before the procedure, performed CT simulation modeling process where determined destination spot beams for irradiation. Computer software program determines exposure for each person individually.
Side effects of this procedure may be fatigue, pain and difficulty swallowing, sore throat, and redness, dryness, itching, pain or ulceration of the skin. To mitigate and eliminate the side effects need to adhere to recommendations dietitian and doctor.
Medullary thyroid cancer
Medullary thyroid cancer is found in 3% of all thyroid cancers, and it is mostly in women than in men. At an early stage, it accidentally is revealed by the patient himself or at checkup. It can have a sporadic nature as a result of negative impact (not associated with radiation exposure) between the ages of 40 and 60 and it is about 80% of medullary cancer cases. Patients with inherited RET oncogene mutation are in the remaining 20%.
Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC)
According to statistics, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) occurs in 15% of cases and is the second most common type among thyroid cancers. Follicular tumors are formed from follicular cell lined by cuboidal epithelial cell and have the ability to metastasize. Although this type of carcinoma rarely spreads to the nearest lymph nodes, it also more often metastasizes to the lungs and bones.
Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (PTC)
More than 80 percent of thyroid cancer patients will develop papillary-type cancer, three times as common in women as men.
You can find below:
- 1. What are the signs of the disease.
- 2. Genes in papillary thyroid cancer.
- 3. Diagnosis of the diseases.
- 4. Treatment of papillar…