Gallbladder cancer is a malignant tumor that forms in the gallbladder.
When gallbladder cancer is detected at an early stage, the chance of treatment is very high. But most types of gallbladder cancer detected at a later stage.
Professor Baruch Brenner – Head of the Department of Gastrointestinal tract Oncology, Rabin Medical Center (Beilinson)
Professor Abraham Czerniak – specialist in surgery of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas. Director of the department of surgery at Wolfson Medical Center, Holon
Gallbladder cancer is difficult to diagnose because often it does not cause any specific signs or symptoms. In addition, with respect to the hidden nature of the gallbladder promotes the growth of cancer without being detected.
Symptoms of gallbladder cancer: abdominal pain, especially in the upper right abdomen, swelling of the abdomen, fever, loss of appetite, weight gain, nausea, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)
Factors for cancer of gallbladder
Most types of gallbladder cancer begins in the glandular cells that line the inner surface of the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer that starts in this cell type is called adenocarcinoma.
The disease is more common in women than in men. The risk of gallbladder cancer increases with age and is most common in people who have had a history of gallstones in the past. Other causes of the disease may be calcification of the gallbladder, common bile duct cysts and chronic infections of the gallbladder.
Tests and diagnosis
Tests and procedures used to diagnose gallbladder cancer include:
Blood tests to assess liver function.
Visual tests that will help to create an image of the gallbladder. They are ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Once diagnosed with gall bladder cancer specialists to determine the stage of the disease, which helps determine the prognosis and treatment options.
Doctor may recommend surgery to look inside the abdomen and determine whether cancer has spread beyond the gallbladder. Procedure called laparoscopy. Surgeon makes a small incision in the abdomen and inserts a tiny camera in the stomach. The camera allows the surgeon to examine organs surrounding the gallbladder.
Doctor may also recommend MRI with contrast substance, which will consider blocking the bile ducts. These tests may include endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and magnetic resonance cholangiography.
Stage of gallbladder cancer:
I Stage. At this stage gallbladder cancer limited to the innermost layer of the gallbladder.
Stage 2. This is the stage when the cancer of the gallbladder sprouted in the outer layer of the gallbladder and may extend beyond the gallbladder.
Stage 3. At this stage gallbladder cancer invades surrounding one or more organs such as liver, intestine or stomach. Gallbladder cancer may have spread to nearby lymph nodes.
Stage 4. Stage gallbladder cancer includes large tumors involving different organs and tumors of any size that has spread to neighboring and distant areas of the body.
Treatment of gallbladder cancer
Appropriate treatment option is determined by the physician in each individual case and depends on the stage of the cancer, the overall health of the patient and solutions. The initial goal of treatment is to remove the gallbladder cancer, but when this is not possible, other methods of treatment can help control the spread of the disease and preserve quality of life.
Operation. Surgery may be considered at an early stage gallbladder cancer. Options include:
Surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).
Surgery to remove the gallbladder and part of the liver.
Surgical treatment can help with cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. Instead, doctors use techniques such as:
Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill cancer cells.
Radiation therapy. With this method for destroying cancer cells using very powerful energy beams such as X-rays.
Procedures when biliary tract is blocked
Spread gallbladder cancer can lead to blockage of the bile ducts, causing further complications. In this case, your doctor may recommend surgery to stenting (stent) for the free flow of bile, or bypass surgery (bypass or bypass installation in bypass).