Cancer of penis
Cancer of penis is rare and most commonly affects men over the age of 50 years.
The disease is spread less less among men circumcised at an early age. Human papillomavirus (HPV) cause warts on the penis and also increases the risk of developing cancer of the penis. The disease is much more common in smokers.
Dr. Eli Rosenbaum – specialist in prostate cancer, kidney cancer, testicular and bladder cancer, Head of urologic oncology, Rabin Medical Center (Beilinson)
If you notice a white or red spot or red spots on the skin of the penis it is important to consult a doctor for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Symptoms of penile cancer: discoloration and thickening of the skin, and later increase or pain in the penis, especially the glans penis or prepuce, and sometimes in the penis. There may be bleeding. But the majority of cancers of the penis does not hurt.
Cancer of the penis is often seen as a flat tumor bluish-brown, red rash or small bumps. These symptoms can also occur in other diseases.
Diagnosis of penile cancer
Specialist examines and directs the patient to tests that includes biopsy for accurate diagnosis. This procedure is performed under anesthesia (local or general, depending on the decision of the doctor), so that the patient does not feel anything. The samples are examined under a microscope.
If the biopsy confirms cancer, the doctor refers the patient to an oncologist who will perform further tests to determine whether the disease has spread to other organs or it is limited only penis.
Cancer can spread to organs via the blood or lymphatic system, which is protecting the body from infection and disease. This system consists of lymph nodes connected by a network of thin tubes, which contain lymph fluid. If the disease has spread to the prostate to enlarge. A team of specialists conducting additional tests to make the right decisions about treatment.
Computed tomography (CT). This test performs a series of X-rays, which builds a three-dimensional image of the inside of the tela.Test not painful, but it takes 10-30 minutes. These tests use lower doses of radiation and cause minimal harm to the patient.
Lymph node biopsy. If lymph nodes are enlarged, the doctor may remove part of the liquid with a fine needle from lymph node (biopsy). This test will be conducted to determine whether the increased cancer increased due to the tumor. Lymph nodes may also be increased due to an infection or other disease, and not just because of the cancer.
Treatment of penile cancer
Treatment is carried out in a specialized medical center study of cancer, where treatment is determined based on the location and extent of the cancer, the stage of disease, extent and age of the patient.
The course of treatment may involve surgery, which is the main treatment, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. With the development of surgical techniques to date in Israel, patients have the option to save or restore the penis surgically.
Before the treatment doctor must tell you about the method that is right for you, the expected side effects and how to deal with them.
Small superficial tumors, non-proliferation to other areas can be surgically removed with a laser or freezing that destroys cancer cells. If the cancer is found only in the foreskin, it can be treated by circumcision procedure. All of these procedures performed on an outpatient basis, may be made under general or local anesthesia, depending on the causes and characteristics of each particular case.
Wide local excision is performed if the cancer has spread to a wider area. With a wide local amputation removed all of the tumor to the surrounding healthy tissue boundaries. Border of healthy tissue should be considered in the laboratory in order to reduce the risk of recurrence in the future. This operation requires general anesthesia and a short stay in the hospital.
The surgeon may also remove lymph nodes in the groin to assess the spread of cancer to the lymph nodes.
In the case of large tumors may be completely removed glans penis. In this case doctor performs as reconstructive surgery borrowing skin from another part of the body to the head recovery. After this procedure patient should be in the hospital for at least five days.
Radical removal of the penis is provided only if the tumor affects a large part of the penis. If the tumor is close to the base of the penis, then the only solution would be to only complete resection. Today, the operation in Israel is rare, since in most cases doctors are able to save the penis.
Reconstructive penis surgery is very developed in Israel. Sometimes rehabilitation requires another operation. To restore the penis our surgeons use microsurgery techniques, in which doctors can connect nerves, creating a sensation in the reconstructed penis, the patient can experience sexual arousal and live a full life.
Radiation therapy is the effect on the tumor of high intensity energy that destroys cancer cells while causing little damage to healthy tissues. Radiation therapy is used instead of the operation, if the operation to the patient is contraindicated or he rejects it.
To date, in Israel radiotherapy used less and less, due to the development and improvement of surgical techniques. Radiation therapy may be used to treat infected lymph nodes in the groin, as well as to prevent the spread of the disease.
Radiation therapy may be used to treat pain, when the disease has spread to other parts of the body, such as bone.
Treatment usually takes place within a week, Sunday through Thursday. Each session lasts 10-15 minutes. The number of procedures is determined depending on the type and grade of the tumor based on simulation CT. Usually the treatment takes up to six weeks.
Internal radiation (radioactive implants). Radiation therapy can be performed using radioactive implants. This procedure is also called brachytherapy performed or the treatment of small tumors glans. Small radioactive elements injected into the penis head, under general anesthesia, and leave for 4-5 days. The patient remains on all the time in the hospital to prevent radiation exposure of other people.
Chemotherapy. This applies anticancer therapy (cytotoxic) drugs that destroy cancer cells. May use one drug or a combination of several drugs together. Chemotherapy is also used as an ointment for the treatment of small tumors at an early stage, located on the prepuce and the glans.
Photodynamic therapy. This is a relatively new treatment that is experimental and is used in various situations. Photodynamic therapy uses a laser or other sources in combination with a drug photosensitive to destroy abnormal cells.