Ductal carcinoma of the breast in situ (DCIS)
Ductal breast carcinoma in situ is a tumor that forms in the glandular cells of breast duct. It is one of the most common types of cancer. It may also be referred to as intraductal breast carcinoma.
Non-invasive ductal carcinoma – what is it?
Ductal carcinoma is usually localized in the tissues of the milk duct and does not spread to the surrounding tissues of the breast or other organs of the body. This type of cancer is considered the first stage and responds well to treatment and targeted therapy. But if you do not treat it immediately, the tumor can develop into an infiltrative form, more advanced and aggressive stage.
This type of breast cancer is difficult to detect using conventional palpation, and most often it is determined only by mammography.
According to statistics, it is mammography that allows early detection of cancer at the initial stage. If the radiologist noticed white inclusions in the image, which are of different sizes and shape – microcalcinates, additional examination may be required.
Modern diagnostic mammography uses high-resolution x-ray machines. It allows you to consider the structure of tumors in both mammary glands and at different angles.
If breast cancer is suspected, additional studies are conducted using:
- ultrasound diagnostics;
- ductographic research;
During the ductographic examination, a radiopaque fluid is introduced into the lumen of the lacrimal canal and radiography of breast is made under X-rays. This allows:
- to assess the state of the milk ducts visually;
- to detect areas affected by carcinoma.
Sampling for biopsy
During this procedure, radiologist or surgeon takes a tissue from the breast area affected by the abnormal cells. Biopsy is done with using a thin needle or an incision under the ultrasound control.
Then, in a laboratory under a microscope, the pathologist determines the cancer cells and their degree of malignancy.
In Israel you can undergo a comprehensive examination for breast cancer under the guidance of highly qualified doctors: oncologists, radiologists and surgeons.
Stages of ductal carcinoma in situ
An international scale is used for tracking and evaluation, which determines how quickly cancer cells grow in relation to healthy ones. Depending on the stage of non-invasive ductal carcinoma, doctors can predict the return of breast cancer after treatment, or its progression to a more malignant process.
Сancer cells types of non-invasive ductal carcinoma
During examining cancer cells under a microscope, they can be of a different structure and have a different degree of aggressiveness compared with healthy tissues, often turning into an infiltrative ductal carcinoma.
Treatment of breast cancer at an initial stage
Treatment can occur both with the help of surgery, and the classical non-invasive method. The decision on the method of treatment is made by the doctor.
As a rule, with ductal carcinoma, there is no recurrence after removal of the tumor.
Modern Israeli medicine offers a personalized approach to each patient. Most patients undergo such treatment as:
- Lumpectomy with conserving surgery in combination with radiotherapy;
- Exceptionally lumpectomy;
- Lumpectomy and hormone therapy;
- Clinical studies with the constant supervision of doctors;
- Radical surgery to remove the breast – mastectomy.
After diagnosing ductal carcinoma, doctor chooses the appropriate type of surgery – lumpectomy or mastectomy.
Currently, our Israeli doctors recommend targeted treatment, which allows the use of special medical drugs that completely destroy cancer cells at this stage of the disease.
Learn more about modern drugs for the treatment of breast cancer through chat, form or by calling.
All women are potentially candidates for lumpectomy, but mastectomy is preferable if:
- A large area of breast will be affected by the malignant process, and after surgery there will be no pronounced cosmetic effect.
- There are several foci of disease or tumors in several quadrants of the breast.
- Have contraindications to radiotherapy. This may be a therapy that has already been performed, a pregnancy, or a disease in which radiation is undesirable.
During surgery, the lymph nodes under the muscle cavities are not removed, because this type of cancer does not spread outside the affected area.
But there are separate cases when the biopsy of the tumor during the operation shows that non-invasive ductal carcinoma has developed into invasive carcinoma. In such situations, the surgeon decides to remove breast with a mastectomy.
During radiotherapy, concentrated x-ray beams or proton radiation kill cancer cells.
Radiotherapy may include:
- external radiation, when the radiation moves along the body along the intended trajectory;
- brachytherapy when the radiation source is placed inside the breast.
Radiotherapy can not be used if the area of ductal carcinoma is relatively small.
This therapy is used only in the treatment of hormone-dependent tumors, and consists in blocking the access of hormones to carcinoma cells. Or in combination, as an adjuvant.
Used medications such as:
- Aromatase inhibitors.
These drugs reduce the production of estrogen for certain types of cancer, and reduce the cause of the infiltrative form of breast cancer. These drugs are taken for a period of up to 5 years.
After mastectomy, hormonal therapy is not used, since the probability of a return of the malignant process is very small.
During clinical studies, new treatments are being studied, patient management tactics with constant monitoring of the condition, as well as new diagnostic tests that can prevent, determine and cure breast cancer.
Other treatments for non-invasive breast ductal cancer
Although alternative types of medicine currently have no proven means for the treatment of ductal breast cancer, they help to cope with the consequences of treatment, as well as with a sense of hopelessness, despair, anger or sadness.
Complementary and alternative medicine may include:
- relaxation techniques,
- art therapy and many other methods that can significantly reduce the appearance of your symptoms.
The decision is made by the patient.
Ask your doctor about the details of your illness and the results of your examination. If necessary, or in doubt, you can get advice or a second opinion of a reputable Israeli oncologist.
This will help to understand better and decide on the method of therapy, as well as be aware of the research and new types of treatment that are constantly appearing on authoritative sources.