Vaginal infections are a very common problem in women.
Where infections come from?
Lactobacilli bacteria are an integral part of the natural environment of the vaginal mucosa and their role is providing normal vaginal acidity (pH).
Bacteria produce lactic acid and prevent the vagina from infection by other pathogenic bacteria. Under laboratory conditions these bacteria can also destroy HIV. Moreover, in the natural environment of the vagina such bacteria exist as Streptococcus, Gram-negative bacteria, Gardnerella, Anaerobic bacteria, including bacteria of the Candida family.
The hormone estrogen promotes the growth of Lactobacilli by increasing the production of glycogen, which breaks into glucose and used as a nutrient for bacteria.
Acute inflammation of the vagina can be divided into three types:
1. Bacterial vaginosis
2. Vaginal candidiasis
Each of the three types due to various causes, and therefore they have different treatments.
Bacterial vaginosis. The most common cause of acute inflammation. Pathogens are lactic acid bacteria, including mycoplasma, gardnerella and anaerobic bacteria.
Risk factors: multiple sexual partners, change sexual partners several times a month, vaginal douches. Bacterial vaginosis is a risk factor for the occurrence of infections of the female reproductive system, including endometritis after delivery or caesarean section and various infections of wounds after pelvic surgery, pelvic infection and preterm labor.
Women with bacterial vaginosis are also in an increased risk of miscarriage and they have lower the chances of success in vitro fertilization.
The infection should be diagnosed by an experienced gynecologist who on the basis of laboratory analysis will determine the exact diagnosis and prescribe the right treatment.
Treatment focuses on actions against anaerobic bacteria: it can be oral antibiotics, suppository or cream prescribed by the doctor.
Vaginal candidiasis. At least 75 percent of women suffer from vaginal candidiasis at least once in their lifetime and at least half of them are experiencing the discomfort of two or more times. In most cases the disease is caused by bacteria Candida Albicans.
Risk factors: pregnancy, menstruation, use of spermicides and young children (especially from 15 to 19). The use of antibiotics is also a risk factor, probably due to changes in the natural vaginal flora (Lactobacillus).
Diagnosis should be done by an experienced doctor and gynecologist. As a rule, women are concerned about white sticky discharge, no odor, similar to cottage cheese. The gynecologist will take a smear and accurate diagnosis by laboratory analysis.
Treatment in this case is the reception of topical antifungal agents.
Trichomoniasis. Trichomonas is an intracellular parasite that is transmitted through sexual contact.
Risk factors: change of sexual partners, frequency of sex with more than twice a week, the presence of three or more sexual partners in the last month.
Trichomoniasis is also associated with infections of the female reproductive system, including infections after delivery, operations and abortion, pelvic infection and preterm labor.
Diagnosis should be done by an experienced doctor and gynecologist. As a rule, women are concerned about yellow sticky discharge with an unpleasant odor, itch and burning. Gynecologist accurately diagnoses by laboratory analysis of the vaginal smear secretion.
In this case the recommended treatment for both partners by antibiotics, usually metronidazole.
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Benign tumors of the uterus (fibroid)
Amenorrhea (absence of menstruation)
Dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation)
Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual periods)
Cancer and precancerous genital conditions including ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus,cervix, vulva