Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer among women of all ages. The disease is characterized by the presence of early symptoms such as persistent bloating, pain in the pelvis and lower abdomen.
There are several types of ovarian cancer:
Epithelial ovarian cancer which affects the surface layers of the ovary, and is the most common one.
Tumors of embryonic cells which are formed in eggs
Stromal tumors that develop inside the cells of the tissue connecting the ovaries.
Diagnosis of ovarian cancer:
In order to make the correct diagnosis in the first place it is necessary to conduct personal physician examination and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU)
Taking a biopsy ( a small sample of cells from ovarian tissue . Vlaboratorii sample is then tested for the presence of cancer cells.
The biopsy procedure (aspiration biopsy FNA) is as follows – a thin needle is inserted into the abdominal cavity under ultrasound guidance, and from the ovary removed a small sample of tissue.
For metastatic disease and the presence of ascites (accumulation of fluid) in the abdominal cavity may be studied liquid itself.
PET-CT – scan the entire body to identify the process of metastasis .
In some circumstances may be require magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT)
Ovarian Cancer Treatments
The most common treatment of uterine cancer, shown generally at an early stage of the disease is surgical removal of the ovaries and the uterus (hysterectomy).
Surgery method depends destruction level of the malignant process and is chosen by the surgeon individually for each woman
Laparoscopic hysterectomy (endoscopic surgery) – the uterus is removed through several small punctures in the abdomen
Vaginal hysterectomy (open surgery) – the uterus is removed through an incision in the upper part of the vagina
Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy – removal of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes (salpingectomy) and ovaries.
Radical hysterectomy – removal of the uterus and surrounding tissues, including the fallopian tubes, the vagina, ovaries, lymph glands and fatty tissue.
Abdominal hysterectomy (open surgery) – the uterus is removed through an incision in the lower abdomen
Hospitalization for hysterectomy to 2 days. Recovery time after surgery 6-8 weeks.
Hysterectomy may cause a consequence of postoperative menopause (in the case of removal of the ovaries), which may require a course of hormonal therapy to restore hormonal balance.
Chemotherapy – chemicals taking is aimed to kill cancer cells in the body
Chemotherapy is used in cases where the cancer has spread in the body, or there is a risk of recurrence.
Curative chemotherapy is aimed to complete destruction of cancer cells, either to strengthening effect of radiation therapy or surgery to reduce the risk of disease recurrence.
In some cases the chemotherapy is used to relieve the symptoms when the disease was included in the last stage and goes metastatic spread. Chemotherapy may be used to relieve the symptoms and slow the spread of the disease. This is called palliative chemotherapy.
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