Personalized cancer treatment – transfer to individual therapy protocol
Cancer developing is connected in most cases with a mutation of a human genome.
Nowadays, our oncologists use new methods for definition of cancer genomes-oncomarkers (DNA mutations). This allows not only to identify precisely cancer tumor type but also the impact of different drugs on it that are not included in the standard anticancer therapy. So, patient and doctor are informed what exactly will work on a specific tumor of a specific person.
Onсo-tests are genomic and genetic studies for detection of DNA mutations with using biopsy of tumor tissue or blood tests which help to choose correctly the precised treatment of cancer tumor for each patient out of standard treatment.
Each person inherits a set of genes from both parents. This gene which is available in almost all cells of the body and embodied in the structure of DNA strands. If in the cellular DNA occurs a defect or mutation that may lead to inclusion of cancer genes, the body cannot control this process. The defective cell continues to multiply that results in the appearance of the cancer. Mutations can occur as a result of exposure to endogenous and exogenous causes (for example cancerogenic chemicals, radioactiveradiation, etc.). And only а very small number of cases the mutation is inherited from parents. In many cases, the cause of the mutation remains unknown.
What is the importance of identifying changes in the DNA of the cancer cells.
Detection of DNA mutations in cancer cells and the definition of genes-markers allows to develop the personalized treatment. That is the individual therapy protocol in accordance with a genetic profile of the cancer tumor. Individual therapy has an advantage in selection of the most effective type of treatment, in comparison with standard protocols previously passed by all the patients depending on the primary tumor: chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery.
Personalized treatment is the targeted and highly effective drug treatment, accompanied by fewer side effects. Treatment includes special anticancer drugs and cures directed against the mutating cancer cells. Such therapy has much less effect on healthy cells.
In many cases, due to early diagnosis the tumor can be removed by surgery. In some cases, such as colon cancer, breast cancer or prostate cancer, the question often arises whether a prophylactic treatment, radiotheraphy or chemotherapy is necessary. In such cases, doctor may recommend genetic tests for genes-oncomarkers in the colon, breast and prostate.
In order to prepare the patient for the narrowly targeted and personalized treatment against a certain type of cancer and diagnosis of tumor mutations, as well as for definition whether a patient-focused and personalized treatment approaches, three types of researches are applied:
⇒ The study of tissue samples (Tissue Panels) – after sampling tissue biopsies is used method of sequencing genes-oncomarkers.
⇒The study of sample liquid (Liquid Panels) – after sampling blood issued method of sequencing genes-oncomarkers.
⇒ Inclusive genome-proteomic studies (Ultra-Coverage Genomic Proteomic). General genome sequencing of tumor cells distant tissues.
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Differences between chemotherapy, immunotherapy and biological treatment
Nowadays, it is very easy to get lost among the millions of web pages and social networks about cancer treatment (chemotherapy, biological or targeted therapy, immunotherapy (immunological treatment). Before starting treatment it is very important to know the basic concepts, and also to learn how to compare different types of treatment, depending on the type of disease.
Precision treatment of ovarian cancer
Precision (personalized) treatment of ovarian cancer – is the target method that helps to prevent ineffective “trial and error” way, loss of valuable time and to avoid undesirable side effects.
Caris – Molecular test
Caris Molecular Intelligence is an analysis of a cancerous tumor at the molecular level that helps to make the most detailed profile of the malignant tissue, on the basis of which our oncologists can recommend to the patient drugs actually effective on his tumor, and also to determine the list of drugs that will not be effective.
Personalized lung cancer treatment
Lung cancer can origin from different types of lung cells and even within the same cell type, caused by various molecular anomalies. In the personalized treatment of a patient, taking into account his individual circumstances, the first step is to identify the cells of the cancer origin. In 10-15% of cases, lung cancer belongs to the subtype of “small cells”. The majority of people, however, suffer from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This type of lung cancer is classified as squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma.
Personalized colon cancer treatment
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases in the world. To date, despite the fact that at the time of detection, about 25% of patients have been diagnosed with multiple spread to other organs (metastases), the survival of 60% of these patients has increased up to 5 years. The range of drugs available for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer is rapidly expanding. In addition, great progress has been made in this field and in others, which led to the possibility of individual treatment for different groups of patients.
Personalized breast cancer treatment
The probability of full breast cancer recovery in recent decades has increased significantly, due to the introduction of new scientific developments and research.
Today, in addition to surgery, radiotherapy and systemic treatment according to standard protocols in Israel most of patients receive personalized treatment that really increases the chances of survival and a positive prognosis for each individual patient.
What is personalized cancer treatment
A new approach to cancer treatment is a personalized protocol, tailored individually for each patient.
Dr. Raanan Berger – Director of Oncology Institute, Chaim Shiba Medical Center, Tel ha Shomer, Israel.
Personalized treatment is a new approach that supposed to be a future for cancer management.
Why personalized treatment is important?
Two women with breast cancer and metastases in the lungs come in oncology department. Both women have tumor of 2 cm in the breast and 4 lung metastases, the same pathology response, both patients receive the same treatment protocol. One patient responds well to treatment – the tumors disappear, but the woman suffers very much from the toxicity of therapy – nausea, vomiting, oppression of bone marrow functions, fever and severe weakness.
CANscript is a unique diagnostic
CANscript provides patients and physicians with a reliable prognosis of the response to cancer treatment and also allows to select a personal treatment protocol for each patient, based on the individual characteristics of his body, the tumor and its reactions to certain drugs.